Case studiesSelection of case studies
The selection of the cross-border metropolitan regions covered in this atlas was based on the ESPON 3.4.1 project (ESPON 2007) and the Metroborder project (ESPON 2010). Considering the cross-border metropolitan region (CBMR) as a functional urban region embedded in global economic networks and transcending an international border, two criteria have been applied.
First, only functional urban regions presenting a metropolitan dimension have been taken into account. This was carried out by considering the control and command functions evidenced by ESPON 3.1.4.
Second, the spaces under scrutiny had to reach a threshold of 'cross-borderness' e.g. at least 5% of their total population had to live in a neighbouring country. Through the application of these two criteria, the following CBMRs have been identified: Aachen-Liege-Maastricht, Basel, Copenhagen-Malmo, Geneva, Katowice-Ostrava, Lille, Luxembourg, Nice-Monaco-San Remo, Saarbrucken, Strasbourg and Vienna-Bratislava.
In this atlas, each cross-border metropolitan region is named according to its major metropolitan centre(s).